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  » Preventive Medicine  »  Cancers preventable by dietary means
A obal projection

Included as 'dietary factors' in this table are various foods, nutrients, alcoholic drinks, body weight and physical activity. The panel has estimated the extent to which specific cancers or cancer in general are preventable by the dietary and associated factors described in the report. The figures suggested are ranges consistent with current scientific knowledge as reviewed and assessed in chapters 4-7 of the report, and take established non-dietary risk factors, notably the use of tobacco, specific infections and occupational exposures to carcinogens, into account. The arrows represent either decreasing risk ( ) or increasing risk ( ).

 

Global
ranking
(incidence)

Global
incidence
(1,000s)

Dietary factors
(convincing or
probable)

Non-dietary risk
Factors
(established)

Preventable by diet
         
Low
Estimate
(%)
High
Estimate
(%)
Low
Estimate
(1,000s)
High
Estimate
(1,000s)

Mouth and
pharynx
Nasopharynx

5
575

Vegetables & fruitsa
Alcohol
Salted fishb

Smokinga
Betela
EBVb

33
50
190
288

Larynx

14
190

Vegetables & fruits
Alcohol

Smoking

33
50
63
95

Esophagus

8
480

Vegetables & fruits
Deficiency deits
Alcohol

Smoking
Barrett"s
oesophagus

50
75
240
360

Lung

1
1,320

Vegetables & fruits

Smoking
Occupation

20
33
264
436

Stomach

2
1,015

Vegetables & fruits
Refridgeration
Salt
Salted foods

H.pylori

66
75
670
61

Pancreas

13
200

Vegetables & fruits
Meat, animal fat

Smoking

33
50
6
100

Gallbladder

-
c
-
-
 
-
-
-

Liver

6
540

Alcohol
Contaminated food

HBV and HCV

33
66
178
356

Colon, rectum

4
875

Vegetables
Physical activity
Meat
Alcohol

Smoking
Genes
Ulcerative
S. sinensis
NSAID's

66
75
578
656

Breast

3
910

Vegetables
Rapid early growth
Early menarche
Obesity
Alcohol

Reproductive
Genes
Radiation

33
50
300
455

Ovary

15
190
-

Reproductive
Genes

10
20
19
38

Endometrium

16
170

Obesity

OCs
Oestrogens
Reproductive

25
50
43
85

Cervix

7
525

Vegetables & fruits

HPV
Smoking

10
20
53
105

Prostate

9
400

Meat or meat fat or
dairy fat

 
10
20
40
80

Thyroid

-
100d

Iodine deficiency

Radiation

10
20
10
20

Kidney

17
165

Obesity

Smoking
Phenacetin

25
33
41
54

Bladder

11
310
 

Smoking
Occupation
S. haematobium

10
20
31
62

Other

 
2,355
-
-
10
10
236
236
             
3,022
4,187

Total (1996)

 
10,320
       
29.3%
/td>
40.6%

Figures on global ranking and incidence: Parkin et al (1993); WHO (1997)
a Mouth and pharynx; also chewing tobacco
b Nasopharynx
c Reliable worldwide data are not collected by IARC for this site
d Conservative estimate based on IARC, (1993)