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  » Preventive Medicine  »  Cancer Prevention Detection Chart
Symptoms listed do not necessarily mean you have cancer. Now more than ever, early detection can save your life. If you have any of these symptoms, see your physician. Only he/she can determine this for certain.
  Signs/Symptoms Diagnostic Aids Treatment Options Risk Factors Suggested Preventative Measures
Prostate

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US):
179,300
Weak or interrupted urine flow

Inability to urinate

Difficulty stopping or starting urine flow

Blood in urine
Digital rectal exam

PSA blood test

Transrectal ultrasonogram

Needle biopsy
Surgery

Radiation

Horomone Therapy

Cryosurgery

Immunotherapy

Chemotherapy (for metastatic disease)

Clinical trails
Age-65 plus

Animal fat

Race-African American

Family history
Limit animal fat
BREAST

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US):
175,000
Breast thickening or lump

Nipple discharge or pain

Breast skin dimpling

Breast skin scaliness
Monthly breast self-exam

Mammogram

Breast ultrasound

Ductogram

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation

Chemotherapy

Hormone therapy

Breast reconstruction

Bone marrow transplant or stem cell rescue

Clinical trails
Age-post menopause

Personal or family history

Atypical hyperplasia

Early menstruation

Late menopause

No children

Late childbirth

Inherited gene mutations

Pesticide and chemical exposures

Alcohol consumption

Weight gain

Physical inactivity
Maintain healthy weight

Exercise

Limit alcohol intake

Eat healthy diet
LUNG

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US):
171,600
Persistent cough

Sputum streaked with blood

Chest pain

Recurring pneumonia or bronchitis
Chest x-ray

Sputum analysis

Endoscopy of bronchial passages

CT scans
Surgery

Radiation treatment

Chemotherapy

Clinical trials
Cigarette smoking

Exposure to chemicals, asbestos, radon

Secondhand smoke
Don't smoke

Reduce exposure to chemicals and secondhand smoke
COLO-RECTAL

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 129,400
Blood in stool

Persistent bowel habit changes

Abdominal pain

Decreased appetite
Hemoccult stool exam

Digital rectal exam

Barium enema

Sigmoidoscopy

Colonoscopy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Clinical trials
History of colon polyps

Family history of colorectal (FAP) polyps

Inflammatory bowel disease

Obesity

High fat/low fiber diet
Maintain healthy weight

Increase fruits and vegetables

Reduce dietary fat

Exercise

Possibly aspirin
NON-HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 56,800
Swollen, painless lymph nodes

Unexplained fever and/or weight loss

Constant fatigue

Night sweats
Blood tests

Lymph node biopsy

Bone marrow biopsy
Radiotherapy

Chemotherapy

Bone marrow transplantation

Clinical trials
Reduced immune function

Exposure to pesticides, solvents, or fertilizers

HIV
Maximize protection against pollutants
BLADDER

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 54,200
Blood in urine

Frequent urination

Inability to urinate

Pain on urination

Fever
Urinalysis

Cystoscopy

Intravenous pyelogram

MRI

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Immunotherapy

Clinical trials
Smoking

Exposure to dye, leather and rubber

Age-65 plus
Don't smoke

Maximize protection against industrial, toxic chemicals
MELANOMA

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 44,200
Change in size of a mole

Lesion with irregular border and red, white, or blue-black spots
Skin biopsy Surgery

Chemotherapy

Radiation therapy

Immunotherapy

Clinical trials

Fair complexion

Excessive exposure to sun

Family history

Multiple moles

Monthly skin exam

Use sunscreen with an SPF of 15 or higher
UTERINE (Endometrium)

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 37,400
Abnormal uterine bleeding or spotting

Pain during intercourse

Pain in the pelvic area
Pelvic exam

Dilation & curettage (D&C)

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Hormone therapy

Prolonged estrogen exposure

Early menarche

Late menopause

No Children

Failure to ovulate

Obesity

Maintain ideal weight

Annual pelvic exams

Endometrial biopsy at menopause for women at high risk
LEUKEMIAS

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 30,200
Fatigue

Paleness

Weight loss

Repeated infections

Bruising easily

Nosebleeds
Blood test

Bone marrow biopsy
Chemotherapy

Blood transfusions

Bone marrow transplantation

Clinical trials
Excessive exposure to ionizing radiation and to benzene Avoid exposure to environmental pollutants
MOUTH ORAL CAVITY AND PHARYNX

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 29,800
Sore that bleeds easily and does not heal

A lump or thickening

Red or white patch that persists
Visual inspection

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Immunotherapy

Clinical trials
Cigarette, cigar or pipe smoking

Smokeless tobacco

Excessive consumption of alcohol
Don't smoke or use tobacco

Drink moderately

See dentist at 6-month intervals
PANCREAS

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 28,600
Jaundice

Loss of appetite

Abdominal pain

Weight loss

Nausea/vomiting
CT scan

Ultrasound

Endoscopy

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation

Chemotherapy

Smoking

Chronic pancreatitis

Diabetes

Cirrhosis

High-fat diet

Don't smoke

Eat healthy diet
KIDNEY

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 28,000
Blood in urine

Weight loss

Recurrent fevers

Pain in abdomen or side

Fatigue
Urinalysis

Blood tests

Intravenous pyelogram

CT/MRI

Arteriography

Ultrasound

Needle biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Clinical trials

Smoking

Asbestos exposure

Obesity

Long-term dialysis

Don't smoke

Avoid asbestos exposure

>OVARY

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 25,200
Abdominal enlargement

Stomach discomfort

Gas distention

Pelvic exam

Transvaginal ultrasound

Blood tests

Surgery

Radiation

Chemotherapy

Immunotherapy

Clinical trials

Never pregnant

Personal history or breast cancer

Family history or ovarian cancer

 
STOMACH

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 24,000

Weight and appetite loss

Heartburn

Abdominal distention

Vomiting blood

Nausea and vomiting

Upper gastrointestinal barium x-ray

Gastroscopy

Endoscopy

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation

Chemotherapy

Clinical trials
Diet high in pickled, salted, smoked and dried foods

Pernicious anemia

Gastric atrophy

Smoking

Decrease consumption of noted foods

Don't smoke

THYROID

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 18,400
Neck swelling/lump

Difficulty breathing or swallowing

Hoarseness

Swollen lymph nodes
Blood tests

Ultrasound

Radioactive iodine scan

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy
History of neck radiation for acne (childhood)

Exposure to high-level radiation sources
Periodic thyroid scan for those at risk

Use of protective measures during radiation exposure
BRAIN (Nervous System)

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 17,000
A seizure

Persistent headache

Personality changes

Nausea/vomiting

Loss of coordination

Weakness or loss of feeling in arms and legs
Neurological exam

CT/MRI

Angiography

Skull x-rays

Echoencephalogram

Myelogram
Surgery

Radiation

Gamma knife

Chemotherapy

Immunotherapy

Clinical trials
Prolonged exposure to electromagnetic fields

Occupational exposure to oil or rubber
.
LIVER (Primary)

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 15,300
Abdominal swelling

Vague pain upper right abdomen and back

Fatigue

Fever

Weight loss

Jaundice

Loss of appetite
Liver scans

CT/MRI

Blood tests

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Immunotherapy

Clinical trials
Occupational exposure to chemicals, e.g, vinyl chloride

Cirrhosis

Alcohol abuse combined with heavy tobacco use

Hepatitis B or C

Poor nutrition
Hepatitis B & C vaccination

Maximize protection against toxic chemicals

Reduce alcohol consumption

Don't smoke
MULTIPLE MYELOMA

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 13,000
Intermittent bone pain

Weight loss

Weakness

Fatigue

Broken bones

Recurrent infections
Blood test for M proteins

Bone marrow aspiration

Bone marrow biopsy

X-rays/MRI
Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Bone marrow transplant/stem cell recovery

Clinical trials
Family history

Excessive exposure to radiation

Exposure to certain agriculture and petroleum-related chemicals
Avoid radiation exposure

Maximize protection from toxic industrial and agricultural chemicals
CERVIX

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 12,800
Abnormal vaginal discharge

Unusual vaginal bleeding

Pelvic pain
Pelvic exam

Pap test

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Clinical trials
Intercourse before age 18

Multiple male sex partners

Sexually transmitted infections with certain types of human papillomavirus
Annual Pap test

Sexual partner discretion

Don't smoke
ESOPHAGUS

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 12,100
Swallowing difficulty

Indigestion

Prolonged heartburn

Coughing

Hoarseness
Barium swallow

Esophagoscopy

CT/MRI

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Clinical trials
Heavy tobacco use with heavy alcohol use

Reflux

Barrett's esophagus

Poor nutrition
Don't use tobacco

Limit alcohol intake

Eat well-balanced diet
LARYNX

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US): 12,000
Hoarseness or other voice changes

Persistent cough/sore throat

Lump on neck

Bad breath
Laryngoscopy

CT/MRI

Biopsy
Surgery

Radiation

Chemotherapy

Clinical trials
All forms of tobacco

Alcohol abuse

Asbestos exposure
Don't smoke

Limit alcohol intake

Avoid exposure to asbestos
HODGKIN'S LYMPHOMA

Approximate Annual Estimates for new cases (US):7,200
Swollen lymph nodes

Anemia

Fever

Night Sweats

Weight loss
Blood tests

CT/MRI

Lymph node biopsy

Bone marrow biopsy
Radiation therapy

Chemotherapy

Bone marrow transplant

Clinical trials

Family history

Epstein-Barr virus
Maintain immune system with healthy diet and lifestyle
Copyright 2001 National Foundation for Cancer Research, 4600 East West Highway, Bethesda, Maryland 20814
Phone 1-800-321-CURE