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  » Diet Information  »  Patient teaching: dietary guide
Eat a variety of foods Avoid too much sugar

Include selections of:
• Fruits
• Vegetables
• Whole grain and enriched breads, cereals, and grain products
• Milk, cheese, yogurt
• Meats, fish, poultry, eggs
• Legumes (dry peas and beans)

• Use less of all sugar, including white sugar, brown sugar, honey, and syrup.
• Eat less of foods containing sugar, such as candy, soft drinks, ice cream, cake, cookies.
• Select fresh fruits or fruits canned without sugar or with light syrup (no heavy syrup).
• Read food labels to determine sugar content. (Remember: The first ingredient listed is the largest amount in the product.) Sucrose, maltose, dextrose, lactose, etc., are also sugars.
• Remember that how often you eat sugar is as important as how much sugar you eat.

Maintain ideal weight Avoid too much fat, saturated fat, and cholesterol

• Increase physical activity
• Eat less fat and fatty foods
• Eat less sugar and sweets
• Avoid too much alcohol

• Choose lean meat, fish, poultry, dry beans, and peas as protein sources
• Moderate use of eggs and organ meat (such as liver)
• Limit intake of butter, cream, hydrogenated margarines, shortening, and coconut oil
• Trim excess fat off meats
• Broil, bake, or boil (rather than fry) food
• Read labels to determine amounts and types of fat in foods

Avoid too much sodium

• Learn to enjoy unsalted flavor of foods
• Cook with only small amount of salt
• Add little or no salt at the table
• Limit intake of salty foods (salted nuts, popcorn, soy sauce, pickles, cured and smoked meats, etc.)
• Read labels to determine amounts of salt (sodium)
Remember: Sodium is contained in some artificial sweeteners

Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation

• Substitute starches for fats and sugars
• Select foods that are good sources of fiber and starch, such as whole-grain breads and cereals, fruits, and vegetables, beans, peas, and nuts

• Pregnant women should be especially careful not to drink alcohol. It is best not to drink during pregnancy, but vital to limit to a maximum of 2 ounces on any single day
• Drink plenty of water
Data from U.S. Department of Agriculture, Human Nutrition information, 1985