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  » Smoking and health effect  »  Smoking Statistics: Nigeria
Socio-demographic characteristics
Population199019952025
Total96,154,000111,721,000238,397,000
Adult (15+)52,545,00060,806,000149,830,000
% Urban35.239.361.6
% Rural64.860.738.4


Health Status

Life expectancy at birth, 1990-95 : 48.8 (males), 52.0 (females)
Infant mortality rate in 1990-95 : 84 per 1,000 live births

Socio-Economic Situation

GNP per capita ($ US), 1991 : 350, Real GDP per capita (PPP$), 1991 : 1,360
Average distribution of labour force by sector, 1990 - 92 : Agriculture 48%; Industry 7%; Services 45%
Adult literacy rate (%), 1992 : Total 52; Male 63; Female 41

Tobacco production, trade and industry

Agriculture In 1990, 21,220 hectares were harvested for tobacco, (0.1% of arable land). This is a slight increase from 19,500 hectares in 1985. Most of the tobacco is produced on small plots ranging from one-third to one hectare per farmer.

Production and Trade In 1992, about 8,385 tonnes of unmanufactured tobacco were produced (0.1% of the world total). From 1990-92, Nigeria has produced about 13,000 million cigarettes each year (0.2% of world production). Nigeria imported 2,400 tonnes of unmanufactured tobacco (0.2% of the world total) and exported 23 tonnes. Over the same period, 8,500 million cigarettes were imported. Import costs amounted to US$ 12.3 million in 1990 (0.1% of all import costs), more than 6 times the amount spent in 1985.

Industry There are two main manufacturing companies in Nigeria, both of which are affiliates of tobacco multinationals.

Tobacco consumption

In the early 1990s, adult per capita consumption averaged 370 cigarettes annually, a 32% increase from the early 1970s. However, due to reports of widespread smuggling, consumption may actually be higher. In 1988, it was estimated that 70-80% of the cheaper brands of cigarettes were sold by the single stick. In 1990, smokers in Nigeria smokes an average of 11 cigarettes per day.

Consumption of Manufactured Cigarettes
  Annual average per adult (15+)
1970-72 290
1980-82 350
1990-92 370

Tar/Nicotine/Filters In 1990, 78% of the manufactured cigarettes in Nigeria were filter-tipped. In 1983, the most popular brand contained 19 mg. of tar.

Prevalence

According to a 1990 survey of 1,270 adults, 24.4% of males and 6.7% of females smoked cigarettes on a daily basis. 17.9% of the population used cigars/pipe tobacco, while 9.6% used snuff. Prevalence of cigarette smoking increased considerably among the young age group since the 1960s.

Tobacco use among population sub-groups A 1990 survey conducted in medium sized towns/cities, unlikely to be representatives of Lagos or rural areas, reported prevalence of smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day among education-level groups as follows: without education: 10.3%; primary educatoin: 14.7%; post primary education: 10.5% and higher education: 10.8%. The prevalance of smoking at least one pack per day among sexes was reported to be 12.0% for males and 1.8% for females.

Age patterns The 1990 survey reported prevalence of smoking at least one pack of cigarettes per day, as follows: age 20-29: 7.7%; age 30-39: 13.9%; age 40-49: 13.1% and age 50 and above: 12.3%.

Tobacco Control Measures

Control on Tobacco Products Tobacco Smoking Decree of 1990 was promulgated by the Federal Military Government of Nigeria. The decree makes provision for the control of smoking of tobacco in certain places and also prohibits any form of advertisement that is liable to encourage tobacco smoking in Nigeria. Further, rotating health warnings are required on cigarette packs.

Protection for non-smokers Smoking was banned in 1990 in health facilities and schools. In addition, many private companies in Lagos have implemented smoke-free workplace policies.

Health Education Posters, handouts and pamphlets on the dangers of smoking are regularly circulated to institutions and schools. Health care professionals offer smoking cessation programmes to individuals and groups.