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  » Smoking and health effect  »  Smoking Statistics: Armenia
Socio-demographic characteristics
Population199019952025
Total3,352,0003,599,0004,724,000
Adult (15+)2,332,0002,533,0003,696,000
% Urban67.568.780.1
% Rural32.531.319.9


Health Status

Life expectancy at birth, 1990-95 : 69.5 (males), 75.5 (females)
Infant mortality rate in 1990-95 : 21 per 1,000 live births

Age-standardized annual death rate per 100,000 (early 1990's)
  Ischaemic heart disease Cerebrovascular disease Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Lung cancer All cancers All causes
Males 475.2 162.6 74.6 63.9 192.9 1,282.8
Females 319.3 149.1 24.3 9.0 113.1 823.1


Socio-Economic Situation

GNP per capita ($ US), 1991 : 1,930, Real GDP per capita (PPP$), 1991 : 4,610
Average distribution of labour force by sector, 1990 - 92 : Agriculture 11%; Industry 32%; Services 57%

Tobacco production, trade and industry

Production and trade Tobacco production in Armenia has declined rapidly. In 1988, Armenia produced around 8,600 tonnes of unmanufactured tobacco (0.2% of world production). However, production had declined to around 1,800 tonnes by 1990, falling even further in 1992 to approximately 950 tonnes, due to armed conflicts in the area. In 1988, 5,000 tonnes of unmanufactured tobacco was exported (nearly 60% of production), but exports declined to 360 tonnes in 1990. In 1992, imports totalled 2,717 tonnes. The production of manufactured cigarettes remained fairly constant at about 3,300 million per year. However, imports increased from 700 million cigarettes in 1988 to 2,000 million cigarettes 1992.

Tobacco consumption

In 1992, the apparent consumption of cigarettes was around 5,000 million, up from around 4,000 million in 1985. In the mid 1990s, there was easy availability of western cigarette brands, even in remote villages of Armenia. It is reported that cigarette smuggling appears to be increasing in Armenia.

Prevalence

No precise data are available on smoking prevalence among adults in Armenia. However, it can be assumed, given the rapid rise in lung cancer, which in the mid 1990s exceeded the European and European Union averages, that the prevalence of smoking is high. It has been reported that smoking is about 50% or greater among males, low among middle-aged women, and starting to increase among young women.

Age patterns In Yerevan, the smoking prevalence among youth aged 14-16 years was 56% for boys and 21% for girls, according to a 1994 study. A survey of 245 schoolchildren aged 10-16 in Yerevan found a smoking prevalence of 19% (32% M; 8.3% F). More than 90% of boys and 51% of the girls had started smoking before the age of 16, with the majority initiating smoking between the ages of 10 and 12. All of the youth surveyed smoked less than a pack a day.

Mortality from Tobacco Use

Average lung cancer mortality rates (age-standardized) for the period 1990-1992 were 64/100,000 for males and 9/100,000 for females. In 1995, it is estimated that tobacco was the cause of about 4,400 deaths, 90% of which were men. This represents about 16% of all deaths (26% of male deaths, 3% of female deaths). In comparison, in 1985, the percentage of deaths attributable to tobacco was estimated at 10% (19% for males, 1% for females).

Tobacco control measures

Control on Tobacco Products The advertising of tobacco products is banned in Armenian press, television, and radio. However, Russian television (widely shown in Armenia) has been advertising tobacco for a number of years, and as of 1995, it was still uncertain to what extent the recent Russian advertising ban would be respected.

Protection for non-smokers It is reported that there are some restrictions on smoking in public transport as well as some restrictions in other public places.

Control on Tobacco Products The health authorities of Armenia have recognized the need to act promptly on tobacco and have identified legislation and health education as the main means. The Institute of Public Health is the key organization working toward tobacco control. The Department of Public Health of the American University of Armenia and the Scientific Association of Medical Students of Armenia are also actively involved in tobacco control. Articles on the problems of smoking have been published in the press, and a regular radio programme also deals with the issue. The Teenage Medical Hygiene School received international recognition for its work in promoting the concept of a tobacco-free society. World No-Tobacco Day is celebrated in Armenia.